¿Cómo compara la economía de Cuba con la de Puerto Rico?

No se puede hablar de Cuba y Puerto Rico sin citar el consabido verso de Lola Rodríguez Tió que afirma que las dos islas son “de un pájaro, las dos alas”. Es este artículo para a poner un ala junto a la otra, para ver dónde sobresale cada una y dónde se queda corta, en términos de ejecutoria económica.

Para poner las dos encomias en perspectiva, tenemos que decir que, aunque Cuba tiene 11 veces la superficie de Puerto Rico y 4 veces su fuerza laboral, su producción es a penas, el 70% de la de Puerto Rico.

Es interesante notar que, en el año 1990, las dos economias eran del mismo tamaño ($21 billones), pero ese año, la caíada de la Unión Soviética produjo una grave crisis en Cuba, de la que tardó 8 años en recuperase.

Sin embargo, si observamos con más detalle el crecimiento de los últimos años, se observa que Cuba mantiene un crecimiento promedio del 3% mientras que Puerto Rico decrece a -1.5% al año. Esta diferencia del 4.5% en crecimiento puede cerrar esa brecha en unos pocos añós.

Cómo es conocido, su economía depende mucho del gobierno y de la agricultura, al menos cuando se compara con Puerto Rico.

Su mercado laboral luce un poco más saludable que el de Puerto Rico, lo cuál no tiene mucho mérito, ya que Puerto Rico es uno de los sitios más tóxicos del planeta en este aspecto. Cuba tiene menos desempleo y más participación (más gente que quiera trabajar).


En cuanto a Educación se refiere, en Puerto Rico la gente estudia más a nivel superior, y hay más maestros por estudiante en los niveles primarios y secundarios, aunque en Cuba logran llegar a más proporción de niños.

En general, Puerto Rico es un país más 5 veces más rico que Cuba, cuando se divide su producción entre su población. Otro indicador que apunta en la misma dirección es el número de celulares por cada 10o personas.

Para acabar, tenemos que reconocer que este análisis es muy parcializado: si en algo hay que aventaje Puerto Rico a Cuba no es es sus magnitudes económicas, que es lo que hemos visto aquí. La ventaja más sólida de Puerto Rico sobre Cuba está en sus instituciones: mercados. bancos, leyes, tribunales, aduanas, etc. Claro está, que de nada sirven las instituciones si no hay voluntad de usarlas.

Bobby López

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